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Please find below: (1) Academic Articles, and (2) Essays for Popular Audiences

Academic Articles

In Press

Kraft-Todd, G., Kleiman-Weiner, M., & Young, L. (in press). Assessing and Dissociating Virtues from the ‘Bottom up’: A Case Study of Generosity vs Fairness. The Journal of Positive Psychology.

Kim, M., Young, L., & Anzellotti, S. (in press). Exploring the representational structure of trait knowledge using perceived similarity. Social Cognition. [Supplemental Materials]


O’Connor, B., Lee, K., Campbell, D., & Young, L. (2022). Moral psychology from the lab to the wild: Relief registries as a paradigm for studying real-world altruism. PLoS One.

Krause, P., Gustafson, D., Theriault, J., & Young, L. (2022). Knowing is half the battle: How education decreases the fear of terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution.

Martin, J.W., Leddy, K., Young, L., & McAuliffe, K. (2022). An earlier role for intent in children’s partner choice versus punishment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Karg, S.M., Kim, M., Mitkidis, P. & Young, L. (2022). Collaborative Cheating in Hierarchical Teams: Effects of Incentive Structure and Leader Behavior on Subordinate Behavior and Perceptions of Leaders. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Lees, J., Young, L., & Waytz, A. (2022). Morally questionable actors’ meta-perceptions are accurate but overly positive. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

Kodipady, A., Kraft-Todd, G., Sparkman, G., Hu, B., & Young, L. (2022). Beyond virtue signaling: Perceived motivations for pronoun sharing. Journal of Applied Psychology.

Kim, M.J., Theriault, J., Hirschfeld-Kroen, J., & Young, L. (2022). Reframing of moral dilemmas reveals an unexpected “positivity bias” in updating and attributions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 101, 104310.

Park, B., Kim, M., & Young, L. (2022). The role of relational mobility in relationship quality and well-being. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 02654075221108760.

Dhaliwal, N., Martin, J.W., Barclay, P. & Young, L. (2022). Signaling benefits of partner choice decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 151(6), 1446–1472.


McManus, R.M., Mason, J.E., & Young, L. (2021). Re-examining the role of family relationships in structuring perceived helping obligations, and their impact on moral evaluation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 96, 104182.

Park, B.†, Kim, M.†, & Young, L. (2021). An examination of accurate versus “biased” mentalizing in moral and economic decision-making. In Gilead, M. & Ochsner, K. N. (Eds). In The Neural Basis of Mentalizing (pp. 537-554). New York: Springer. . †: Co-correspondence

Handley-Miner, I., & Young, L. (2021). Do knowledge representations facilitate learning under epistemic uncertainty? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 44, E156. doi:10.1017/S0140525X20001806.

Hirschfeld-Kroen, J., Jiang, K., Wasserman, E., Anzellotti, S., & Young, L. (2021). When my wrongs are worse than yours: Behavioral and neural asymmetries in first-person and third-person perspectives of accidental harms. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 94, 104102.

Tsoi, L., Hamlin, K., Waytz, A., Baron, A.S., & Young, L. (2021). A cooperation advantage for theory of mind in children and adults. Social Cognition, 39(1), 19-40.

Theriault, J., Young, L., & Feldman Barrett, L. (2021). The sense of should: a biologically-based framework for modeling social pressure. Physics of Life Reviews, 36, 100-136. doi: 10.1016/j.plrev.2020.01.004

Niemi, L., Leone, C., & Young, L. (2021). Linguistic evidence for the dissociation between impurity and harm: Differences in the duration and scope of contamination versus injury. Social Cognition, 39(1), 117-138.

Kim, M., Mende-Siedlecki, P., Anzellotti, S., & Young, L. (2021). Theory of mind following the violation of strong and weak prior beliefs. Cerebral Cortex, 31(2), 884-898.


Greene, J.D. & Young, L. (2020). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Moral Judgment and Decision-Making. The Cognitive Neurosciences, Volume 6 (Ed. M.S. Gazzaniga). MIT Press.

Rottman, J., Zizik, V., Minard, K., Young, L., Blake, P. R., & Kelemen, D. (2020). The moral, or the story? Changing children’s distributive justice preferences through social communication. Cognition, 205, 104441. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104441.

Park, B., Fareri, D., Delgado, M., & Young, L. (2020). The role of right temporo-parietal junction in processing social prediction error across relationship contexts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, nsaa072.

Theriault, J., Waytz, A., Heiphetz, L., & Young, L. (2020). Theory of Mind network activity is associated with metaethical judgment: An item analysis. Neuropsychologia, 107475.

Niemi, L., Hartshorne, J., Gerstenberg, T., Stanley, M. & Young, L. (2020). Moral values reveal the causality implicit in verb meaning. Cognitive Science, 44(6), e12838.

Lees, J., & Young, L. (2020). A theory of wisdom needs theory of mind. Psychological Inquiry, 31(2), 168-173, doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2020.1750925

Kim, M., Park, B., & Young, L. (2020). The psychology of motivated versus rational impression updating. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(2), 101-111. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2019.12.001

Park, B. & Young, L. (2020). An association between biased impression updating and relationship facilitation: A behavioral and fMRI investigation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 87. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2019.103916

McManus, R. M., Kleiman-Weiner, M., & Young, L. (2020). What we owe to family: The impact of special obligations on moral judgment. Psychological Science, 31(3), 227–242. doi: 10.1177/0956797619900321


Heiphetz, L. & Young, L. (2019). Children’s and Adults’ Affectionate Generosity Toward Members of Different Religious Groups. American Behavioral Scientist, 63(14), 1910-1937. doi: 10.1177/0002764219850870.

Dungan, J. & Young, L. (2019). Asking “Why?” enhances theory of mind when evaluating harm but not purity violations. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14(7), 699-708. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsz048.

Waytz, A., Iyer, R., Young, L., Haidt, J., & Graham, J. (2019). Ideological Differences in the Expanse of the Moral Circle. Nature Communications, 10, 4389. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-12227-0

Anzellotti, S. & Young, L. (2019). The Acquisition of Person Knowledge. Annual Review of Psychology, 71. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010419-050844

Dungan, J., Young, L., & Waytz, A. (2019). The Power of Moral Concerns in Predicting Whistleblowing Decisions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 8. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2019.103848.

Niemi, L., Roussos, G., & Young, L (2019). Political partisanship alters the causality implicit in verb meaning. Journal of Language and Social Psychology. doi: 10.1177/0261927X19858124

Rottman, J. & Young, L. (2019). Specks of Dirt and Tons of Pain: Dosage Distinguishes Impurity from Harm. Psychological Science, 30(8), 1151–1160. doi: 10.1177/1197576/709576719978615958358523.

Gaesser, B., Hirschfeld-Kroen, J., Wasserman, E., Horn, M. & Young, L. (2019). A role for the medial temporal lobe subsystem in guiding prosociality: the effect of episodic processes on willingness to help others. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14(4), 397-410. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsz014.

Waytz, A. & Young, L. (2019). Aversion to Playing God and Moral Condemnation of Technology and Science. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 374(1771), 20180041.

Niemi, L., Woodring, M., Young, L., & Cordes, S. (2019). Partisan mathematical processing of political polling statistics: It’s the expectations that count. Cognition, 186, 95-107. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2019.02.002.


Theriault, J. & Young, L. (2018). Not as distinct as you think: Reasons to doubt that morality comprises a unified and objective conceptual category. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 41, E114. doi:10.1017/S0140525X18000195.

Waytz, A., & Young, L. (2018). Morality for us versus them. In Gray, K., & Graham, J. (Eds.), The Atlas of Moral Psychology, 186. Guilford Press.

Niemi, L., Wasserman, E.A., & Young, L. (2018). The behavioral and neural signatures of distinct conceptions of fairness. Social Neuroscience, 13(4), 399-415. doi:10.1080/17470919.2017.1333452.

Piazza, J., Landy, J., Chakroff, A., Young, L., & Wasserman, E.A. (2018). What disgust does and does not do for moral cognition. In Strohminger & Kumar (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Disgust, 53-81. Rowman & Littlefield International.

Heiphetz, L., Strohminger, N., Gelman, S., & Young, L. (2018). Who Am I? The Role of Moral Beliefs in Children’s and Adults’ Understanding of Identity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 78, 210-219.

Tsoi, L., Dungan, J., Chakroff, A., & Young, L. (2018). Neural substrates for moral judgments of psychological versus physical harm. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13(5), 460-470. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsy029.

Tsoi, L. & Young, L. (2018). Moral reasoning. In S. Thompson-Schill (Ed.), Language & Thought. Volume 3 of The Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience (4th ed.). Editor-in-chief: J. Wixted. Wiley.

Gaesser, B., Keeler K., Young, L. (2018). Moral imagination: Facilitating prosocial decision-making through scene imagery and theory of mind. Cognition, 171, 180-193. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2017.11.004.

Heiphetz, L., Lane, J., Waytz, A., Young, L. (2018). My mind, your mind, and God’s mind: How children and adults conceive of different agents’ moral beliefs. British Journal of Developmental Psychology , doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12231


Graham, J., Waytz, A., Meindl, P., Iyer, R., & Young, L. (2017). Centripetal and centrifugal forces in the moral circle: competing constraints on moral learning. Cognition, 167, 58-65.

Ford, J. H., Gaesser, B., DiBiase, H., Berro, T., Young, L., and Kensinger, E. (2017). Heroic Memory: Remembering the Details of Others’ Heroism in the Aftermath of a Traumatic Public Event Can Foster Our Own Prosocial Response. Applied Cognitive Psychology, doi: 10.1002/acp.3377

Theriault, J., Waytz, A., Heiphetz, L., & Young, L. (2017). Examining overlap in behavioral and neural representations of morals, facts, and preferences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(11), 1586-1605. doi:10.1037/xge0000350

Niemi, L. & Young, L. (2017). Who sees what as fair? Mapping individual differences in valuation of reciprocity, charity, and impartiality. Social Justice Research. doi:10.1007/s11211-017-0291-4

Richardson, H., Koster-Hale, J., Velez, N., Asaba, M., Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2017). Mentalizing regions represent distributed, continuous, and abstract dimensions of others’ beliefs. NeuroImage, 161, 9-18. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.08.026

Wasserman, E.A., Chakroff, A., Saxe, R., & Young, L. (2017). Illuminating the conceptual structure of the space of moral violations with searchlight representational similarity analysis. NeuroImage, 159 , 371-387. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.07.043

Rottman, J., Young, L., & Kelemen, D. (2017). The impact of testimony on children’s moralization of novel actions. Emotion, 17 (5), 811-827. doi: 10.1037/emo0000276.

Heiphetz, L., Strohminger, N., & Young, L. (2017). The role of moral beliefs, memories, and preferences in representations of identity. Cognitive Science, 41, 744-767. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12354.

Heiphetz, L., & Young, L. (2017). Can only one person be right? The development of objectivism and social preferences regarding widely shared and controversial moral beliefs. Cognition, 167, 78-90. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2016.05.014

Baez, S., Herrera, E., Garcia, A.M., Manes, F., Young, L., & Ibanez, A. (2017). Outcome-oriented moral evaluation in terrorists. Nature Human Behavior, 1, 1-8. doi:10.1038/s41562-017-0118.

Heiphetz, L., Gelman, S.A., & Young, L. (2017). The perceived stability and biological basis of religious beliefs, factual beliefs, and opinions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 156 , 82-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2016.11.015.

Theriault, J., Krause, P., & Young, L. (2017). Know thy enemy: education about terrorism improves social attitudes towards terrorists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(3), 305-317.

Chakroff, A., Russell, P.S., Piazza, J., & Young, L. (2017). From impure to harmful: asymmetric expectations about immoral agents. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 201-209.

Patil, I., Calò, M., Fornasier, F., Young, L., & Silani, G. (2017). Neuroanatomical correlates of forgiving unintentional harms. Scientific Reports, 7, 45967. doi: 10.1038/srep45967.

Patil, I., Young, L., Sinay, V., & Gleichgerrcht, E. (2017). Elevated moral condemnation of third-party violations in multiple sclerosis patients. Social Neuroscience, 12(3), 308–329. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2016.1175380.

Dungan, J.A., Chakroff, A., & Young, L. (2017) The relevance of moral norms in distinct relational contexts: Purity versus harm norms regulate self-directed actions. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0173405. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173405


Waytz, A., Iyer, R., Young, L., & Graham, J. (2016). Ideological differences in the expanse of empathy. In Valdesolo, P. & Graham, J., (Eds.), Bridging Ideological Divides (Claremont Series on Applied Social Psychology). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.

Chakroff, A., Dungan, J., Koster-Hale, J. Brown, A., Saxe, R., & Young, L. (2016). When minds matter for moral judgment: intent information is neurally encoded for harmful but not impure acts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(3), 476-484. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv131.

Niemi, L., & Young., L. (2016). When and why we see victims as responsible: the impact of ideology on attitudes toward victims. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(9), 1227-1242. doi: 10.1177/0146167216653933. NYT op-ed:

Dungan, J., Stepanovic, M., & Young, L. (2016). Theory of mind for unexpected events across contexts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(8), 1183-1192. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw032.

Tasimi, A., & Young, L. (2016). Memories of good deeds past: the reinforcing power of prosocial behavior in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 147, 159-166. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2016.03.001.

Tsoi, L., Dungan, J., Waytz, A., & Young, L. (2016). Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition. Neuroimage, 137, 86-96. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.04.069.

Niemi, L., & Young, L. (2016). Justice and the moral lexicon. Psychological Inquiry, 27, 50-54. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2016.1111122.


Gaesser, B., Horn, M., & Young, L. (2015). When can imagining the self increase willingness to help others? Investigating whether the self-referential nature of episodic simulation fosters prosociality. Social Cognition, 33(6), 562-584. doi: 10.1521/soco.2015.33.6.562.

Chakroff, A., Thomas, K. A., Haque, O. S., Young, L. (2015). An indecent proposal: The dual functions of indirect speech. Cognitive Science, 39(1), 199-211. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12145.

Dungan, J., Waytz, A., & Young, L. (2015). The Psychology of Whistleblowing. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 129 – 133. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.005

Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E.S., & Young, L.L. (2015). In the name of God: How children and adults judge agents who act for religious versus secular reasons. Cognition, 144, 134-149. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2015.07.017

Chakroff, A., Young, L. (2015). How the Mind Matters for Morality. AJOB Neuroscience, 6(3), 41–46. doi: 10.1080/21507740.2015.1058866

Rottman, J., Young, L. (2015). Mechanisms of Moral Development. In J. Decety, T. Wheatley (eds.), The Moral Brain: A multidisciplinary perspective. MIT Press.

Dungan, J. and Young, L. (2015). Understanding the Adaptive Functions of Morality from a Cognitive Psychological Perspective. In R.A. Scott, S. M. Kosslyn (eds.), Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource. John Wiley & Sons (Wiley Online Library). doi: 10.1002/9781118900772.etrds0376

Heiphetz, L., Lane, D.J., Waytz, A., Young, L. (2015). How children and Adults Represent God’s Mind. Cognitive Science, (2015), 1-24. doi:10.1111/cogs.12232

Chakroff, A., Young, L. (2015). Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains. Cognition, 136(2015), 30–37. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.034

Rottman, J., Kelemen, D., & Young, L. (2015). Hindering harm and preserving purity: How can moral psychology save the planet? Philosophy Compass, 10(2), 134–144. doi:10.1111/phc3.12195


Theriault, J., Young, L. (2014). Taking an “Intentional Stance” on Moral Psychology. In J. Sytsma (ed.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Mind. Continuum Press.

Waytz, A., Young, L. (2014). Two Motivations for Two Dimensions of Mind. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55(2014), 278–283. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.08.001

Waytz, A., Young, L., Ginges, J. (2014). A motive attribution asymmetry for love versus hate drives intractable conflict. PNAS, 111(44), 15687–15692. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1414146111

Chakroff, A., Young, L. (2014). The prosocial brain: perceiving others in need, and acting on it. In L. Padilla-Walker, G. Carlo (eds.), Prosocial Development: A Multidimensional Approach (90-111). Oxford University Press.

Dungan, J., Waytz, A., Young, L. (2014). Corruption in the context of moral tradeoffs. Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 26(1-2), 97-118. doi: 10.1177/0260107914540832.

Rottman, J., Kelemen, D., & Young, L. (2014). Purity matters more than harm in moral judgments of suicide: Response to Gray (2014). Cognition, 133(1), 332–334. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.06.008.

Young, L. (2014). The Mechanics of Moral Judgments. Observer, 27(2).

Rottman, J., Young, L. (2014). Comment: Scholarly Disgust and Related Mysteries. Emotion Review, 6(3), 222-223. doi: 10.1177/1754073914523043.

Niemi, L., Young L. (2014). Blaming the Victim in the Case of Rape. Psychological Inquiry, 25(2), 230-233. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2014.901127.

Rottman, J., Kelemen, D., & Young, L.  (2014).  Tainting the soul: Purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.  Cognition, 130(2), 217-226.  doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.11.007

Heiphetz, L., & Young, L. (2014). A social cognitive developmental perspective on moral judgment. Behaviour, 151(2-3), 315–335. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003131

Carmona-Perera, M., Clark, L., Young, L., Perez-Garcia, M., Verdejo-Garcia, A. (2014). Impaired decoding of fear and disgust predicts utilitarian moral judgment in alcohol-dependent individuals. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 38(1), 179–185. doi: 10.1111/acer.12245


Niemi, L. & Young, L. (2013). Caring across boundaries versus keeping boundaries intact: Links between moral values and interpersonal orientations. PLOS ONE, 8(12), e81605. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081605

Dufour, N., Redcay, E., Young, L., Mavros, P.L., Moran, J.M., Triantafyllou,C., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Saxe, R. (2013). Similar Brain Activation during False Belief Tasks in a Large Sample of Adults with and without Autism. PLOS ONE, 8(9), e75468. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075468

Waytz, A., Dungan, J., Young, L. (2013). The Whistleblower’s Dilemma and the Fairness-Loyalty Tradeoff. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 1027-1033. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.07.002 NYT op-ed

Chakroff, A., Dungan, J., Young, L. (2013). Harming ourselves and defiling others: what determines a moral domain? PLOS ONE, 8(9), e74434. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074434

Koster-Hale, J., Saxe, R., Dungan, J., Young, L. L. (2013). Decoding moral judgments from neural representations of intentions. PNAS, 110(14), 5648–5653. doi:10.1073/pnas.1207992110

Hawley-Dolan, A., Young L. (2013). Whose Mind Matters More – The Agent or the Artist? An Investigation of Ethical and Aesthetic Evaluations. PLOS ONE, 8(9), e70759. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070759

Gleichgerrcht, E., Young, L. (2013). Low Levels of Empathic Concern Predict Utilitarian Moral Judgment. PLOS ONE, 8(4), e60418. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060418

Young, L., Durwin, A. (2013). Moral realism as moral motivation: The impact of meta-ethics on everyday decision-making. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(2013), 302-306. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.11.013

Young, L., Tsoi, L. (2013). When mental states matter, when they don’t, and what that means for morality. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(8), 585–604. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12044

Young, L.*, Waytz, A.* (2013). Mind attribution is for morality. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, M. Lombardo (eds.), Understanding Other Minds. Oxford University Press. *Equal contributors

Young, L. (2013). Moral Thinking. In D. Reisberg (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Saxe, R., Young, L. (2013). Theory of Mind: How brains think about thoughts. In K. Ochsner & S. Kosslyn (eds.), The Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. chapter online


Young, L., Chakroff, A., Tom, J. (2012). Doing good leads to more good: The reinforcing power of a moral self-concept. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 3(3), 325-334. doi:10.1007/s13164-012-0111-6

Young, L.*, Koenigs, M.*, Kruepke, M., Newman, J. (2012). Psychopathy increases perceived moral permissibility of accidents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 21(3), 659-667. doi:10.1037/a0027489 *Equal contributors

Waytz, L., Young, L. (2012). The Group-Member Mind Tradeoff: Attributing Mind to Groups versus Group Members. Psychological Science, 23, 77-85. doi:10.1177/0956797611423546

Carmona-Perera, M., Verdejo-García, A., Young, L., Molina-Fernández, A., & Pérez-García, M. (2012). Moral decision-making in polysubstance dependent individuals, Drug and Alcohol Dependence. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.038

Young, L., Dungan, J. (2012). Where in the Brain is morality? Everywhere and maybe nowhere. Social Neuroscience, 7, 1-10. doi:10.1080/17470919.2011.569146

Gray, K., Young, L., Waytz, A. (2012). Mind perception is the essence of morality. Psychological Inquiry, 23(2), 101-124. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2012.651387

Gray, K., Waytz, A., Young, L. (2012). The Moral Dyad: A fundamental template unifying moral judgment. Psychological Inquiry, 23(2), 206-215. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2012.686247

Dungan, J., Young, L. (2012). The two-type model of morality. In D. Fassin (ed.), Companion to Moral Anthropology. Wiley-Blackwell.


Young, L., Saxe, R. (2011). When ignorance is no excuse: Different roles for intent across moral domains. Cognition, 120, 202-214. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2011.04.005

Young, L.*, Phillips, J.* (2011). The Paradox of Moral Focus. Cognition, 119, 166-178. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2011.01.004 *Equal contributors

Moran, J.*, Young, L.*, Saxe, R., Lee, S., O’Young, D., Mavros, P., Gabrieli, J. (2011). Impaired theory of mind for moral judgment in high functioning autism. PNAS, 108, 2688-2692. doi:10.1073/pnas.1011734108 *Equal contributors

Cushman, F., Young, L. (2011). Patterns of Moral Judgment Derive from Nonmoral Psychological Representations. Cognitive Science, 35, 1052-1075. doi:10.1111/j.1551-6709.2010.01167.x

Young, L., Scholz, J., Saxe, R. (2011). Neural evidence for “intuitive prosecution”: The use of mental state information for negative moral verdicts. Social Neuroscience, 6, 302-315. doi:10.1080/17470919.2010.529712

Young, L., Saxe, R. (2011). Moral Universals and Individual Differences. Emotion Review, 3, 323-324. doi:10.1177/1754073911402383

Hawley-Dolan, A., Young, L. (2011). Whose Mind Matters More: The moral agent or the artist? The role of intent in ethics and aesthetics. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.

Gweon, H., Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2011). Theory of Mind for you, and for me: behavioral and neural similarities and differences in thinking about beliefs of the self and other. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.

Phillips, J., Young, L., (2011). Apparent Paradoxes in Moral Reasoning; Or how you forced him to do it, even though he wasn’t forced to do it. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.

Dungan, J., Young, L. (2011). Multiple Moralities: Tensions and tradeoffs in moral psychology and the law. Thurgood Marshall Law Review, 36, 177-195.


Young, L., Camprodon, J., Hauser, M., Pascual-Leone, A., Saxe, R. (2010). Disruption of the right temporoparietal junction with transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces the role of beliefs in moral judgments. PNAS, 107, 6753-6758. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914826107

Young, L., Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., Hauser, M., Damasio, A. (2010). Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent. Neuron, 65, 845-851. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.03.003

Young, L. Feder, D., Saxe, R. (2010). What gets the attention of the temporo-parietal junction? An fMRI investigation of attention and theory of mind. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2658-2664. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.05.012

Young, L., Nichols, S., Saxe, R. (2010). Investigating the Neural and Cognitive Basis of Moral Luck: It’s Not What You Do but What you Know. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 1, 333-349. doi:10.1007/s13164-010-0027-y

Miller, M., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., Young, L., King, D., Paggi, A., Fabri, M., Polonara, G., Gazzaniga, M. (2010). Abnormal moral reasoning in complete and partial callosotomy patients. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2215-2220. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.02.021

Young, L., Saxe R. (2010). It’s not just what you do, but what’s on your mind. Neuroethics, 3, 201-207. doi:10.1007/s12152-010-9066-4

Sinnott-Armstrong, W., Young, L., Cushman, F. (2010). Moral Intuitions as Heuristics. In J. Doris, G. Harman, S. Nichols, J. Prinz, W. Sinnott-Armstrong, S. Stich (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Cushman, F., Young, L., Greene, J. (2010). Our multi-system moral psychology: Towards a consensus view. In J. Doris, G. Harman, S. Nichols, J. Prinz, W. Sinnott-Armstrong, S. Stich (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology. Oxford University Press.


Young, L., Saxe, R. (2009). Innocent Intentions: A correlation between forgiveness for accidental harm and neural activity. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2065-2072. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.020

Young, L., Saxe, R. (2009). An fMRI Investigation of Spontaneous Mental State Inference for Moral Judgment. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1396-1405. doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21137

Glen, A., Raine, A., Schug, R., Young, L., Hauser, M. (2009). Increased DLPFC activity during moral decision-making in psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 908-911. doi:10.1038/mp.2009.71

Cushman, F., Young, L. (2009) The Psychology of Dilemmas and the Philosophy of Morality. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 12(1), 9-24. doi:10.1007/s10677-008-9145-3


Young, L., Saxe, R. (2008). The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. NeuroImage, 40, 1912-1920. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.057

Kliemann, D., Young, L., Scholz, J., Saxe, R. (2008). The influence of prior record on moral judgment. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2949-2957. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.06.010

Hauser, M., Young, L., Cushman, F. (2008). On Misreading the Linguistic Analogy: Response to Jesse Prinz and Ron Mallon. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. Oxford University Press.

Hauser, M., Young, L., Cushman, F. (2008). Reviving Rawls’ Linguistic Analogy. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. Oxford University Press.

Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., Damasio, A. (2008). Reply to G. Kahane & N. Shackel. Nature, 452, E5-E6. doi:10.1038/nature06785


Young, L., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., Saxe, R. (2007). The neural basis of the interaction between theory of mind and moral judgment. PNAS,104 (20), 8235-8240. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701408104

Young, L., Koenigs, M. (2007). Investigating emotion in moral cognition: a review of evidence from functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology. British Medical Bulletin, 84, 67-79. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldm031

Koenigs, M.*, Young, L.*, Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., Damasio, A. (2007). Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911. doi:10.1038/nature05631 *Equal contributors

Hauser, M., Cushman, F., Young, L., Jin, R., Mikhail, J. (2007). A dissociation between moral judgment and justification. Mind and Language, 22(1), 1-21. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0017.2006.00297.x


Young, L., Cushman, F., Adolphs, R., Tranel D., Hauser, M. (2006). Does emotion mediate the relationship between an action’s moral status and its intentional status? Neuropsychological evidence. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 6 (1-2), 265-278. doi:10.1163/156853706776931312

Cushman, F., Young, L., Hauser, M. (2006). The role of conscious reasoning and intuitions in moral judgment: Testing three principles of harm. Psychological Science, 17(12), 1082-1089. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01834.x

Cushman, F., Young, L., Hauser, M. (2006). The psychology of Justice: A commentary on Natural Justice by Ken Binmore. Analyse & Kritik, 28, 95-98.

Essays For Popular Audiences

“Who blames the victim?” The New York Times, 6/24/2016

“The Whistle-Blower’s Quandary.” The New York Times, 8/2/2013

Young, L. (2011). How We Read People’s Moral Minds. In M. Brockman (ed.), Future Science: 19 Essays from the Cutting Edge. Vintage.

Conversations from the Pale Blue Dot. 11/18/2010

The New Science of Morality: On “A Statement of Consensus”. Edge. 9/9/2010

Comments on Simine Vazire’s “Bright Spots and Blind Spots in Self-Knowledge”. On the Human. 9/7/2010

How Easy Is It to Manipulate Someone’s Moral Reasoning? Science + Religion Today. 4/8/2010

Comments on John Doris’s “Do You Know What You’re Doing”. On the Human. 4/21/2009

What Makes a Whistleblower? Here and Now. 8/16/2013