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Please find below: (1) Academic Articles, and (2) Essays for Popular Audiences

Academic Articles

In Press

Patil, I., Calo, M., Fornasier, F., Young, L., & Silani, G. (in press). Neuroanatomical correlates of forgiving unintentional harms.

Rottman, J., Young, L., & Keleman, D. (in press). The impact of testimony on children’s moralization of novel actions. Emotion. []

Graham, J., Waytz, A., Meindl, P., Iyer, R., & Young, L. (in press). Centripetal and centrifugal forces in the moral circle: competing constraints on moral learning. Cognition. []

Heiphetz, L., Gelman, S.A., & Young, L. (in press). The perceived stability and biological basis of religious beliefs, factual beliefs, and opinions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. []

Theriault, J., Krause, P., & Young, L. (in press). Know thy enemy: education about terrorism improves social attitudes towards terrorists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. []

Chakroff, A., Russell, P.S., Piazza, J., & Young, L. (in press). From impure to harmful: asymmetric expectations about immoral agents. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. []

Heiphetz, L., & Young, L. (in press). Can only one person be right? The development of objectivism and social preferences regarding widely shared and controversial moral beliefs. Cognition. []

Patil, I., Young, L., Sinay, V., & Gleichgerrcht, E. (in press). Elevated moral condemnation of third-party violations in multiple sclerosis patients. Social Neuroscience. []

Waytz, A., & Young, L. (in press). Morality for us versus them. In Gray, K., & Graham, J. (Eds.), The Atlas of Moral Psychology. Guilford Press.

Waytz, A., Iyer, R., Young, L., & Graham, J. (in press). Ideological differences in the expanse of empathy. In Valdesolo, P. & Graham, J., (Eds.), Bridging Ideological Divides (Claremont Series on Applied Social Psychology). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.[]


Dungan, J.A., Chakroff, A., & Young, L. (2017) The relevance of moral norms in distinct relational contexts: Purity versus harm norms regulate self-directed actions. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0173405. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173405 []


Chakroff, A., Dungan, J., Koster-Hale, J. Brown, A., Saxe, R., & Young, L. (2016). When minds matter for moral judgment: intent information is neurally encoded for harmful but not impure acts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(3), 476-484. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv131. []

Niemi, L., & Young., L. (2016). When and why we see victims as responsible: the impact of ideology on attitudes toward victims. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(9), 1227-1242. doi: 10.1177/0146167216653933. [] NYT op-ed: []

Dungan, J., Stepanovic, M., & Young, L. (2016). Theory of mind for unexpected events across contexts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(8), 1183-1192. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw032. []

Tasimi, A., & Young, L. (2016). Memories of good deeds past: the reinforcing power of prosocial behavior in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 147, 159-166. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2016.03.001. []

Tsoi, L., Dungan, J., Waytz, A., & Young, L. (2016). Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition. Neuroimage, 137, 86-96. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.04.069.

Niemi, L., & Young, L. (2016). Justice and the moral lexicon. Psychological Inquiry, 27, 50-54. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2016.1111122. []

Heiphetz, L., Strohminger, N., & Young, L.L. (2016). The role of moral beliefs, memories, and preferences in representations of identity. Cognitive Science, 1-24. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12354. []


Gaesser, B., Horn, M., & Young, L. (2015). When can imagining the self increase willingness to help others? Investigating whether the self-referential nature of episodic simulation fosters prosociality. Social Cognition, 33(6), 562-584. doi: 10.1521/soco.2015.33.6.562. []

Chakroff, A., Thomas, K. A., Haque, O. S., Young, L. (2015). An indecent proposal: The dual functions of indirect speech. Cognitive Science, 39(1), 199-211. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12145. []

Dungan, J., Waytz, A., & Young, L. (2015). The Psychology of Whistleblowing. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 129 – 133. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.005 []

Heiphetz, L., Spelke, E.S., & Young, L.L. (2015). In the name of God: How children and adults judge agents who act for religious versus secular reasons. Cognition, 144, 134-149. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2015.07.017 []

Chakroff, A., Young, L. (2015). How the Mind Matters for Morality. AJOB Neuroscience, 6(3), 41–46. doi: 10.1080/21507740.2015.1058866 []

Rottman, J., Young, L. (2015). Mechanisms of Moral Development. In J. Decety, T. Wheatley (eds.), The Moral Brain: A multidisciplinary perspective. MIT Press. []

Dungan, J. and Young, L. (2015). Understanding the Adaptive Functions of Morality from a Cognitive Psychological Perspective. In R.A. Scott, S. M. Kosslyn (eds.), Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource. John Wiley & Sons (Wiley Online Library). doi: 10.1002/9781118900772.etrds0376 []

Heiphetz, L., Lane, D.J., Waytz, A., Young, L. (2015). How children and Adults Represent God’s Mind. Cognitive Science, (2015), 1-24. doi:10.1111/cogs.12232 []

Chakroff, A., Young, L. (2015). Harmful situations, impure people: an attribution asymmetry across moral domains. Cognition, 136(2015), 30–37. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.034 []

Rottman, J., Kelemen, D., & Young, L. (2015). Hindering harm and preserving purity: How can moral psychology save the planet? Philosophy Compass, 10(2), 134–144. doi:10.1111/phc3.12195 []


Theriault, J., Young, L. (2014). Taking an “Intentional Stance” on Moral Psychology. In J. Sytsma (ed.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Mind. Continuum Press. []

Waytz, A., Young, L. (2014). Two Motivations for Two Dimensions of Mind. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55(2014), 278–283. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2014.08.001 []

Waytz, A., Young, L., Ginges, J. (2014). A motive attribution asymmetry for love versus hate drives intractable conflict. PNAS, 111(44), 15687–15692. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1414146111 []

Chakroff, A., Young, L. (2014). The prosocial brain: perceiving others in need, and acting on it. In L. Padilla-Walker, G. Carlo (eds.), Prosocial Development: A Multidimensional Approach (90-111). Oxford University Press. []

Dungan, J., Waytz, A., Young, L. (2014). Corruption in the context of moral tradeoffs. Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 26(1-2), 97-118. doi: 10.1177/0260107914540832. []

Rottman, J., Kelemen, D., & Young, L. (2014). Purity matters more than harm in moral judgments of suicide: Response to Gray (2014). Cognition, 133(1), 332–334. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.06.008. []

Young, L. (2014). The Mechanics of Moral Judgments. Observer, 27(2). []

Rottman, J., Young, L. (2014). Comment: Scholarly Disgust and Related Mysteries. Emotion Review, 6(3), 222-223. doi: 10.1177/1754073914523043. []

Niemi, L., Young L. (2014). Blaming the Victim in the Case of Rape. Psychological Inquiry, 25(2), 230-233. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2014.901127. []

Rottman, J., Kelemen, D., & Young, L.  (2014).  Tainting the soul: Purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.  Cognition, 130(2), 217-226.  doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.11.007 []

Heiphetz, L., & Young, L. (2014). A social cognitive developmental perspective on moral judgment. Behaviour, 151(2-3), 315–335. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003131 []

Carmona-Perera, M., Clark, L., Young, L., Perez-Garcia, M., Verdejo-Garcia, A. (2014). Impaired decoding of fear and disgust predicts utilitarian moral judgment in alcohol-dependent individuals. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 38(1), 179–185. doi: 10.1111/acer.12245 []


Niemi, L. & Young, L. (2013). Caring across boundaries versus keeping boundaries intact: Links between moral values and interpersonal orientations. PLOS ONE, 8(12), e81605. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081605 []

Dufour, N., Redcay, E., Young, L., Mavros, P.L., Moran, J.M., Triantafyllou,C., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Saxe, R. (2013). Similar Brain Activation during False Belief Tasks in a Large Sample of Adults with and without Autism. PLOS ONE, 8(9), e75468. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075468 []

Waytz, A., Dungan, J., Young, L. (2013). The Whistleblower’s Dilemma and the Fairness-Loyalty Tradeoff. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 1027-1033. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.07.002 [] [NYT op-ed]

Chakroff, A., Dungan, J., Young, L. (2013). Harming ourselves and defiling others: what determines a moral domain? PLOS ONE, 8(9), e74434. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074434 []

Koster-Hale, J., Saxe, R., Dungan, J., Young, L. L. (2013). Decoding moral judgments from neural representations of intentions. PNAS, 110(14), 5648–5653. doi:10.1073/pnas.1207992110 []

Hawley-Dolan, A., Young L. (2013). Whose Mind Matters More – The Agent or the Artist? An Investigation of Ethical and Aesthetic Evaluations. PLOS ONE, 8(9), e70759. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070759 []

Gleichgerrcht, E., Young, L. (2013). Low Levels of Empathic Concern Predict Utilitarian Moral Judgment. PLOS ONE, 8(4), e60418. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060418 []

Young, L., Durwin, A. (2013). Moral realism as moral motivation: The impact of meta-ethics on everyday decision-making. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(2013), 302-306. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.11.013 []

Young, L., Tsoi, L. (2013). When mental states matter, when they don’t, and what that means for morality. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(8), 585–604. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12044 []

Young, L.*, Waytz, A.* (2013). Mind attribution is for morality. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, M. Lombardo (eds.), Understanding Other Minds. Oxford University Press. *Equal contributors []

Young, L. (2013). Moral Thinking. In D. Reisberg (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology. Oxford University Press. []

Saxe, R., Young, L. (2013). Theory of Mind: How brains think about thoughts. In K. Ochsner & S. Kosslyn (eds.), The Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. [chapter online]


Young, L., Chakroff, A., Tom, J. (2012). Doing good leads to more good: The reinforcing power of a moral self-concept. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 3(3), 325-334. doi:10.1007/s13164-012-0111-6 []

Young, L.*, Koenigs, M.*, Kruepke, M., Newman, J. (2012). Psychopathy increases perceived moral permissibility of accidents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 21(3), 659-667. doi:10.1037/a0027489 *Equal contributors []

Waytz, L., Young, L. (2012). The Group-Member Mind Tradeoff: Attributing Mind to Groups versus Group Members. Psychological Science, 23, 77-85. doi:10.1177/0956797611423546 []

Carmona-Perera, M., Verdejo-García, A., Young, L., Molina-Fernández, A., & Pérez-García, M. (2012). Moral decision-making in polysubstance dependent individuals, Drug and Alcohol Dependence. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.038 []

Young, L., Dungan, J. (2012). Where in the Brain is morality? Everywhere and maybe nowhere. Social Neuroscience, 7, 1-10. doi:10.1080/17470919.2011.569146 []

Gray, K., Young, L., Waytz, A. (2012). Mind perception is the essence of morality. Psychological Inquiry, 23(2), 101-124. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2012.651387 []

Gray, K., Waytz, A., Young, L. (2012). The Moral Dyad: A fundamental template unifying moral judgment. Psychological Inquiry, 23(2), 206-215. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2012.686247 []

Dungan, J., Young, L. (2012). The two-type model of morality. In D. Fassin (ed.), Companion to Moral Anthropology. Wiley-Blackwell. []


Young, L., Saxe, R. (2011). When ignorance is no excuse: Different roles for intent across moral domains. Cognition, 120, 202-214. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2011.04.005 []

Young, L.*, Phillips, J.* (2011). The Paradox of Moral Focus. Cognition, 119, 166-178. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2011.01.004 *Equal contributors []

Moran, J.*, Young, L.*, Saxe, R., Lee, S., O’Young, D., Mavros, P., Gabrieli, J. (2011). Impaired theory of mind for moral judgment in high functioning autism. PNAS, 108, 2688-2692. doi:10.1073/pnas.1011734108 *Equal contributors []

Cushman, F., Young, L. (2011). Patterns of Moral Judgment Derive from Nonmoral Psychological Representations. Cognitive Science, 35, 1052-1075. doi:10.1111/j.1551-6709.2010.01167.x []

Young, L., Scholz, J., Saxe, R. (2011). Neural evidence for “intuitive prosecution”: The use of mental state information for negative moral verdicts. Social Neuroscience, 6, 302-315. doi:10.1080/17470919.2010.529712 []

Young, L., Saxe, R. (2011). Moral Universals and Individual Differences. Emotion Review, 3, 323-324. doi:10.1177/1754073911402383 []

Hawley-Dolan, A., Young, L. (2011). Whose Mind Matters More: The moral agent or the artist? The role of intent in ethics and aesthetics. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. []

Gweon, H., Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2011). Theory of Mind for you, and for me: behavioral and neural similarities and differences in thinking about beliefs of the self and other. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. []

Phillips, J., Young, L., (2011). Apparent Paradoxes in Moral Reasoning; Or how you forced him to do it, even though he wasn’t forced to do it. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. []

Dungan, J., Young, L. (2011). Multiple Moralities: Tensions and tradeoffs in moral psychology and the law. Thurgood Marshall Law Review, 36, 177-195. []


Young, L., Camprodon, J., Hauser, M., Pascual-Leone, A., Saxe, R. (2010). Disruption of the right temporoparietal junction with transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces the role of beliefs in moral judgments. PNAS, 107, 6753-6758. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914826107 []

Young, L., Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., Hauser, M., Damasio, A. (2010). Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent. Neuron, 65, 845-851. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.03.003 []

Young, L. Feder, D., Saxe, R. (2010). What gets the attention of the temporo-parietal junction? An fMRI investigation of attention and theory of mind. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2658-2664. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.05.012 []

Young, L., Nichols, S., Saxe, R. (2010). Investigating the Neural and Cognitive Basis of Moral Luck: It’s Not What You Do but What you Know. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 1, 333-349. doi:10.1007/s13164-010-0027-y []

Miller, M., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., Young, L., King, D., Paggi, A., Fabri, M., Polonara, G., Gazzaniga, M. (2010). Abnormal moral reasoning in complete and partial callosotomy patients. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2215-2220. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.02.021 []

Young, L., Saxe R. (2010). It’s not just what you do, but what’s on your mind. Neuroethics, 3, 201-207. doi:10.1007/s12152-010-9066-4 []

Sinnott-Armstrong, W., Young, L., Cushman, F. (2010). Moral Intuitions as Heuristics. In J. Doris, G. Harman, S. Nichols, J. Prinz, W. Sinnott-Armstrong, S. Stich (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology. Oxford University Press. []

Cushman, F., Young, L., Greene, J. (2010). Our multi-system moral psychology: Towards a consensus view. In J. Doris, G. Harman, S. Nichols, J. Prinz, W. Sinnott-Armstrong, S. Stich (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology. Oxford University Press. []


Young, L., Saxe, R. (2009). Innocent Intentions: A correlation between forgiveness for accidental harm and neural activity. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2065-2072. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.020 []

Young, L., Saxe, R. (2009). An fMRI Investigation of Spontaneous Mental State Inference for Moral Judgment. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1396-1405. doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21137 []

Glen, A., Raine, A., Schug, R., Young, L., Hauser, M. (2009). Increased DLPFC activity during moral decision-making in psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 908-911. doi:10.1038/mp.2009.71 []

Cushman, F., Young, L. (2009) The Psychology of Dilemmas and the Philosophy of Morality. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 12(1), 9-24. doi:10.1007/s10677-008-9145-3 []


Young, L., Saxe, R. (2008). The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. NeuroImage, 40, 1912-1920. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.057 []

Kliemann, D., Young, L., Scholz, J., Saxe, R. (2008). The influence of prior record on moral judgment. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2949-2957. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.06.010 []

Hauser, M., Young, L., Cushman, F. (2008). On Misreading the Linguistic Analogy: Response to Jesse Prinz and Ron Mallon. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. Oxford University Press. []

Hauser, M., Young, L., Cushman, F. (2008). Reviving Rawls’ Linguistic Analogy. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. Oxford University Press. []

Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., Damasio, A. (2008). Reply to G. Kahane & N. Shackel. Nature, 452, E5-E6. doi:10.1038/nature06785 []


Young, L., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., Saxe, R. (2007). The neural basis of the interaction between theory of mind and moral judgment. PNAS,104 (20), 8235-8240. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701408104 []

Young, L., Koenigs, M. (2007). Investigating emotion in moral cognition: a review of evidence from functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology. British Medical Bulletin, 84, 67-79. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldm031 []

Koenigs, M.*, Young, L.*, Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., Damasio, A. (2007). Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911. doi:10.1038/nature05631 *Equal contributors []

Hauser, M., Cushman, F., Young, L., Jin, R., Mikhail, J. (2007). A dissociation between moral judgment and justification. Mind and Language, 22(1), 1-21. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0017.2006.00297.x []


Young, L., Cushman, F., Adolphs, R., Tranel D., Hauser, M. (2006). Does emotion mediate the relationship between an action’s moral status and its intentional status? Neuropsychological evidence. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 6 (1-2), 265-278. doi:10.1163/156853706776931312 []

Cushman, F., Young, L., Hauser, M. (2006). The role of conscious reasoning and intuitions in moral judgment: Testing three principles of harm. Psychological Science, 17(12), 1082-1089. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01834.x []

Cushman, F., Young, L., Hauser, M. (2006). The psychology of Justice: A commentary on Natural Justice by Ken Binmore. Analyse & Kritik, 28, 95-98. []

Essays For Popular Audiences

Who blames the victim?, The New York Times, 6/24/2016

The Whistle-Blower’s Quandary. The New York Times. 8/2/2013

Young, L. (2011). How We Read People’s Moral Minds. In M. Brockman (ed.), Future Science: 19 Essays from the Cutting Edge. Vintage. []

Conversations from the Pale Blue Dot. 11/18/2010

The New Science of Morality: On “A Statement of Consensus”. Edge. 9/9/2010

Comments on Simine Vazire’s “Bright Spots and Blind Spots in Self-Knowledge”. On the Human. 9/7/2010

How Easy Is It to Manipulate Someone’s Moral Reasoning? Science + Religion Today. 4/8/2010

Comments on John Doris’s “Do You Know What You’re Doing”. On the Human. 4/21/2009

What Makes a Whistleblower? Here and Now. 8/16/2013